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Knee, Ankle, and Foot

The lower extremity has a significant impact on your ability to move within your world. A series of moving links (hip, knee and ankle joints) work cooperatively in dynamic and static states. This capacity affords us the opportunity to proficiently move, perform and pursue our passion in life. An understanding of these articulations, muscles, joints and their biomechanics should help in sustaining our quest to stay healthy and active!

Specialized sensory receptors in the body (muscles, tendons ligaments and joints) have a proprioceptive function, meaning they relay positional or spatial awareness to your brain in order to maintain upright balance. This is accomplished through a constant stream of information flowing from our body into our spine and up into our brain. Neuropathways, or somatic sensory circuits, create a sense of self as we move our body parts through space and time.

Joints

The knee joint is the largest, most complex joint in the body designed for stability. It is a modified “hinge” joint that flexes and extends with very little rotation or twisting. Stability is dependent on a complex network of thick, strong ligaments inside and outside the joint. Mobility must exist above and below the knee joint in the hip and ankle joint. If the hips are tight and stiff, the knee joint is vulnerable to excessive motion that can create wear and tear. The patella (also known as the knee cap) is the largest “sesamoid” bone in the body and glides between the two round surfaces on the femur bone with knee flexion/extension. On top of the tibia bone sits two shock-absorbing pads, called the menisci, which help to deepen the knee joint surface area in a figure-eight-like pattern. This meniscus pattern shares connections with the cruciate ligaments and assists in guiding the small amount of rotation in the knee.

The foot and ankle are key focal points of support for total body weight forces. Every day we endure concentrated forces of stress through the ankle, which acts as a shock absorber and distributes those forces into the foot. The ankle joint consists of two primary hinge-type joints, the talocrural and subtalar joints. While upright and in gravity, these joints are constantly adapting to the accommodations necessary to stand, walk, run or jump. The fibula and tibia bones from above, and the talus bone from below, form the talocrural joint, which is a hinge joint. The talus and calcaneus make up the subtalar joint. These complex movements in the human frame require intricate and subtle relationships governed by neuromuscular reflexes, provided by our nerves, spinal cord, and brain.

Ligaments

Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL): A superficial, long and flat ligament between the medial epicondyle of the femur and the tibia (4 – 7 cm); stabilizes the inside of the knee joint; resists excessive external rotation and abduction.

Medial Capsular Ligament (MCL): Deep, thick, and attaches to the medial meniscus; shares fibers of the joint capsule; resists inward or valgus stress and medial rotation; stabilizes anterior-posterior movement assisting the anterior cruciate ligament.

Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL): A strong cord-like ligament attaching from the lateral epicondyle of the femur to the top or superior head of the fibula; does not attach to the meniscus; resists outward or external rotation of the femur on the tibia; not injured as much as the MCL due to its lack of meniscal attachment.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL): A strong intra-articular ligament that runs front-to-back (anterior to posterior); fibers are taut with straight leg; prevents the femur from moving backwards or posteriorly on the tibia.

Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL): An intra-articular ligament that attaches back-to-front (posterior to anterior); prevents forward movement of the tibia relative to the femur and internal rotation of the tibia

Patellar Ligament: Common tendon of quadriceps muscle inserts on tibial tuberosity

Muscles

Quadriceps: The largest muscle mass in the body: Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Medialis, Vastus Intermedius. Its action is extension of the knee, flexion of hip (Rectus Femoris only), and tracking of Patella (Vastus Lateralis and Medialis)

Sartorius: A flexor and external rotator of hip joint and flexor of knee joint, and the longest muscle in the body

Hamstrings: Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus & Biceps Femoris. Its action is flexion of the knee, extension of hip, deceleration of leg, stability functions with knee extension

Popliteus: Small muscle that flexes the tibia and rotates it medially

Iliotibial (IT) Band: Tendinous extension of the tensor fasciae latae and gluteus maximus Gastrocnemius. The two heads (lateral and medial) insert above knee; common tendon (Achilles) insets on the calcaneus; influences knee flexion and ankle plantar flexion.

Range of Motion

Standing with both feet on the floor (Closed Kinetic Chain) with a straight or “locked knee” creates zero degrees of flexion due to ligaments, meniscus and joint capsule being tight and at maximum tension. As the knee moves into flexion, the knee “unlocks” and the femoral head and lateral condyle externally rotate slightly and the medial condyle glides or translates in the first 15-20 degrees. Rotational movement is greatest between 45-90 of knee flexion. Knee flexion (120-150 degrees) and extension or hyperextension (5-10 degrees).

Ligaments

Medial Collateral or “Deltoid” Ligament: A thick, strong triangular ligament on the medial side of ankle; from the medial malleolus above, it fans out and inserts on three ankle bones (navicular, calcaneus, talus)

Lateral collateral ligament: Three distinct ligaments (calcaneofibular, anterior/ posterior talofibular) and considerably weaker than its medial counterpart; prone to ankle “inversion” sprains

Muscles

Anterior Leg: Tibialis Anterior, Extensor Digitorium Longus, Extensor Hallucis Longus (Anterior Shin Splints)

Posterior Leg: Tibialis Posterior, Flexor Digitorum Longus, Flexor Hallucis Longus, (Posterior Shin Splints), Plantaris, Triceps Surae, Gastrocnemius (superficial and soleus/deep)

Lateral Leg: Peroneal Tertius, Peroneal Longus, Peroneal Brevis

Foot (Dorsal): Extensor Digitorum Brevis, Extensor Hallucis Brevis, Interossei

Foot (Plantar): Abductor Hallucis, Abductor Digiti Minimi, Flexor Digitorum Brevis, Quadratus Plantae, Lumbricles, Flexor Hallucis Brevis, Adductor Hallucis, Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis, Interossei

Range of Motion

Talocrural Joint: Dorsiflexion (20-30 degrees); Plantarflexion (40-50 degrees)

Subtalar Joint: Supination or Inversion (20 degrees); Pronation or Eversion (10 degrees)

Ankle & Foot Arches

The 3 arches in the foot create support with a suspension-like capacity. The talus bone is considered the “keystone” of support in the arch of the foot. It gives us information for our balance and posture. It allows us to move with precision and power when activities demand it. Strengthening the arches must happen over time and with understanding of proper biomechanics. The 3 arches of the foot are: Medial Longitudinal Arch, Lateral Longitudinal Arch, Transverse Arch.

Squat Test

Perform a squat 5-6 times with good, upright posture (looking straight ahead, feet hip-width and parallel, using a postural grid in the background for reference. You can also take a video or picture (front and lateral views) to check for the structural dysfunctions that may occur below.

  1. Knees move inward of ankles. Right or Left
  2. Inside arch of foot collapses (pronation/Inversion) Right or Left
  3. Foot rotates laterally: Right or Left
  4. Spine flexes forward/dowel angles forward. More than 30 degrees? Y / N
  5. Pelvis shifts or translates: Right or Left
  6. Heels lift off floor: Yes / No
  7. Toes grip floor for balance: Yes / No

Key considerations while performing the squat:

  1. Knees should align vertically above ankles
  2. Inside or medial arch should be maintained. If arch flattens or pronates, this can stretch the soft tissues (plantar fascia/aponeurosis), leading to plantar fascitis or achilles tendonitis
  3. Feet should stay pointing straight ahead and not flare out
  4. Poor flexibility through the ankle and hip joints creates imbalance posteriorly and the upper body will counter-balance by leaning forward respectively.
  5. Asymmetry through old injuries or poor postural habits over the years causes the pelvis to shift laterally or side-to-side, compensating to maintain stability
  6. Tight calf muscles limit the ankle joint in dorsiflex (see #4). When stability is compromised due to body weight moving forward, intrinsic foot muscles have to work hard to resist falling forward and losing balance.


7 Medical Benefits of Marijuana

In this article, we are going to talk about a few medical benefits of marijuana that you can enjoy if you have a medical prescription. In other words, we are going to shed some light on the positives on the basis of scientific research. Marijuana is not recommended for recreational purposes.

According to researchers, the herb can help with the treatment of absent-mindedness, malaria, gout, and rheumatism, just to name a few. Now, let’s talk about some of the prominent benefits of this herb.

1. Cancer Treatment

According to a study published in Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, marijuana can help fight cancer. Another study found that CBD can also curb the growth of cancer cells in the body.

The researchers at the American Association for Cancer Research say that the herb does a good job of slowing down the growth of tumors in the lungs, breasts, and brain.

2. Prevents Alzheimer’s Disease

CBD has a powerful ingredient called THC that helps control the Alzheimer’s disease, says the research that was done at the Scripps Research Institute. Also, THC can curb the growth of amyloid plaques as it tends to block the plaque-producing enzymes. You may get Alzheimer’s disease if your brain cells get killed by the plaques.

3. Treats Glaucoma

CBD may also help treat glaucoma. Actually, marijuana reduces pressure in your eyes, which helps protect your eyeball.

4. Relieves Arthritis

According to a 2011 research study, researchers concluded that cannabis can help patients get rid of pain and swelling. As a result, patients with rheumatoid arthritis can get enough sleep.

5. Treats Epileptic Seizure

Another study done in 2003 found that the herb can be used to treat epileptic seizures as well. An experiment done on rats gave enough evidence that CBD does prevent seizures for up to 10 hours. Actually, THC binds the cells in the brain that are responsible for triggering seizures.

6. Helps with Parkinson’s Disease

Many studies were done in Israel to find out the benefits of marijuana for patients with Parkinson’s disease. The study found that the drug can help ease the pain, which helps patients improve their sleep. The patients consumed the herb also enjoyed better motor skills.

7. Helps with Crohn’s Disease

Cannabis is also a good choice for patients with Crohn’s disease. This disease causes pain and inflammation in the intestines. Patients also experience pain, weight loss, diarrhea, and nausea.

In Israel, studies were done to find out if this disease can be controlled with cannabis. And the results were positive. More than 90% of the participants who smoked marijuana experienced fewer symptoms.

Long story short, if more research is done, we may come to know about a lot of other benefits of this herb as well. For now, we can say that CBD has some benefits as far as the treatment of the abovementioned diseases is concerned. However, we don’t recommend that you smoke or use this herb in any form without a valid medical prescription. Hope this helps.


With Ho’oponopono You Can Delete the Mental Files That Cause Depression

“Instead of getting depressed, it is easier to be in our natural state of happiness, and it is very easy to achieve it.”
It’s World Health Day on April 7 and this year’s theme is depression. According to the World Health Organization, this condition shockingly is the leading cause of disability worldwide, with 300 million people suffering from it, so I am not surprised that I’m asked frequently whether Ho’oponopono can help to eliminate it.

The answer is very simple because, as I always explain, with the practice of this wonderful old Hawaiian art for eliminating problems, interpretations and self-limiting thoughts, such as those that cause us to sink into sadness and discouragement, these can be erased.

Depression can stay forever out of your life by choosing to live in the present moment, in what I called Zero Frequency® because it allows you to eliminate mental files or memories that can cause damage, even subconsciously.

We also have to ask ourselves: What does the person who lets themselves become discouraged and unhappy achieve? Perhaps get the attention of the people close to them so they can take care of them? Is that why this behavior becomes a habit, even “natural” and “accepted,” that we become addicted to being depressed?

Osho the Master Zen said, that in order to let go of what makes you miserable, you need to be willing to let go of the benefit you think you are getting or you will get from it.

Sure, this is not a conscious level, which is why people have a hard time taking 100% responsibility. But actually realizing is just your programs, you can set yourself free from them.

You have to put a lot of effort into being depressed; it’s easier to allow ourselves to be in our natural state of happiness. This is easy to achieve; you just have to “decide” to do things differently and not to engage, and give the power to these replayed memories. Move and stretch the muscles of the body for the energy to flow. Even the very act of smiling?-?as most would agree?-?causes a feeling of great well-being. It’s been proven that smiles are contagious and helps keep everyone from being depressed!

On the other hand, did you know that depression often has to do with the lack of water? Although it seems incredible, hospitals use hydration to stabilize mood, so even just drinking the vital fluid helps us to feel better.

If the hydration comes from Blue Solar Water, even better. Blue Solar Water is one of the tools we use in Ho’oponopono, this ancient Hawaiian art of problem solving that I teach, and that helps us erase those programs in our subconscious mind that attract depression and so much unhappiness to our lives. Most of these programs comes from ancestors!

On the same subject, I remember a student who called me a while ago, very depressed, and because of how bad she felt, her doctor wanted to admit her into a hospital for the mentally ill, which would stop her from attending the training that Ihaleakalá and I were giving in San Diego, California.

We recommended using the Ho’oponopono tool of 3/4 glass of water and after doing so, she was able to drive to San Diego, where she arrived with a big smile saying that after changing the water three times, she felt like new.

Another exemplary story is Teresa, a student from Ho’oponopono who suffered a breakdown. They feared the worst because she had very high blood pressure and her heart might stop. She was even afraid to fall asleep and not wake up again, which led her to a constant state of anxiety and panic.

Teresa lived in Hawaii and since the doctors could not help her, she had no choice but to go to the emergency room. She was admitted to the psychiatric ward where she was given high doses of antidepressants and anti-anxiety medications. She was hospitalized four times in four years in a psychiatric unit without resolving her great anxiety and emotional pain. What the doctors did was prescribe more drugs, but since they did not go to the root of the problem, she deteriorated.

Later, she moved to San Diego, where she began to study energy healing and found the Ho’oponopono method whose cleansing processes she practiced religiously. To her surprise, according to her testimony, after discovering the Ho’oponopono seminar that she described as “a beautiful, perfect, sacred, miraculous process,” she was able to throw away the addictive antidepressants.

In conclusion, it is indispensable to be aware that if the memory of a depression tries to occupy a place in your life, know that you have a choice! And remember, to release depression you can say “Thank you” or “I love you” and doing so, you let go and let God (Love), who knows best how to erase these memories that keep controlling you and taking you to the past, and to fill your heart with beautiful things. Choose to let go of depression and sit in the driver’s seat!


All You Need to Know Regarding CBD Oil

CBD stands for cannabidiol oil. It is used to treat different symptoms even though its use is rather controversial. There is also some confusion as to how exactly the oil affects our bodies. The oil may have health benefits and such products that have the compound are legal in many places today.

What it is

CBD is a cannabinoid, a compound found in cannabis plant. The oil contains CBD concentrations and the uses vary greatly. In cannabis, the compound that is popular is delta 9 tetrahydrocannabinol or THC. It is an active ingredient found in marijuana. Marijuana has CBD and THCA and both have different effects.

THC alters the mind when one is smoking or cooking with it. This is because it is broken down by heat. Unlike THC, CBD isn’t psychoactive. This means that your state of mind does not change with use. However, significant changes can be noted within the human body suggesting medical benefits.

Source

Hemp is a part of the cannabis plant and in most cases, it is not processed. This is where a lot of the CBD is extracted. Marijuana and hemp originate from cannabis sativa, but are quite different. Today, marijuana farmers are breeding plants so that they can have high THC levels. Hemp farmers do not need to modify plants and are used to create the CBD oil.

How it works

Cannabinoids affect the body by attaching themselves to different receptors. Some cannabinoids are produced by the body and there are the CB1 and CB2 receptors. CB1 receptors are located all through the body with a great number of them being in the brain. The receptors are responsible for mood, emotions, pain, movement, coordination, memories, appetite, thinking, and many other functions. THC affects these receptors.

As for the CB2 receptors, they are mainly in one’s immune system and affect pain and inflammation. Even though CBD does not attach directly here, it directs the body to use cannabinoids more.

The benefits

CBD is beneficial to human health in different ways. It is a natural pain reliever and has anti-inflammatory properties. Over the counter drugs are used for pain relief and most people prefer a more natural alternative and this is where CBD oil comes in.

Research has shown that CBD provides a better treatment, especially for people with chronic pain.

There is also evidence that suggest that the use of CBD can be very helpful for anyone who is trying to quit smoking and dealing with drug withdrawals. In a study, it was seen that smokers who had inhalers that had CBD tended to smoke less than what was usual for them and without any further craving for cigarettes. CBD could be a great treatment for persons with addiction disorders especially to opioids.

There are many other medical conditions that are aided by CBD and they include epilepsy, LGA, Dravet syndrome, seizures and so on. More research is being conducted on the effects of CBD in the human body and the results are quite promising. The possibility of combating cancer and different anxiety disorders is also being looked at.


Introduction to Different Types of Surgery

In a surgical procedure, incisions are made in order to treat a disease or injury. The tissues are cut to allow the required manipulation. Surgery is of different types, and they are divided into different classes on the basis of many factors like the surgery timing, purpose, and the type of equipment used.

The art of surgery is also known as “surgical procedure” or “operation”. Primarily, surgery is done by a surgeon. Typically, he performs the surgery with the assistance of other specialists like a surgical technologist, circulating nurse and anesthesia provider.

Types of Surgery

There are many types of surgery. Based on different parameters, they can be put under many categories.

Timing Based

This category involves different types of surgeries based on need and urgency.

1. Elective Surgery

As the name suggests, this type of surgery is optional. This type of procedure is planned in advance and is not ideal to deal with an emergency situation. Many procedures come under this category of elective surgery, such as cosmetic surgeries.

2. Semi-Elective Surgery

Semi-elective surgery is done in order to save a patient’s life. However, it can’t be done in an emergency.

3. Urgent Surgery

As the name suggests, urgent surgery is done only when the patient is stable.

4. Emergency Surgery

This type of procedure is done without any delay as the patient’s condition requires it. If not done right away, the patient’s life may be at risk.

Body Part Based

Based on the body part, this type of surgery is done. Usually, it’s done on a specific structure or organ system. Let’s know about other types.

1. Gastrointestinal Surgery

Gastrointestinal surgery is done in the digestive tract and the related organs, such as the esophagus, rectum, large intestine, small intestine, and stomach. Aside from this, it includes pancreas, gallbladder, and liver.

2. Orthopedic Surgery

This involves the muscles or bones of the patient. This medical specialty is related to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the injuries of the nerves, tendons, ligaments, joints, spine, bones and muscles.

3. Cardiovascular Surgery

It involves the surgical treatment of different disorders and diseases of the blood vessels and the heart. Examples include open heart surgery and vascular surgery.

4. Gynecology

This surgical specialty is related to the female reproductive system i.e. ovaries, vagina, and uterus.

5. Neurosurgery

This specialty involves the treatment of different disorders of the peripheral nerves, spinal cord, and the brain.

6. Ophthalmology (Eyes)

Ophthalmology diagnosis and treats different disorders of the eye. Some common conditions include conjunctivitis, glaucoma, and cataracts.

7. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

This dental specialty helps to perform the diagnosis and treatment of many injuries, diseases, and defect of gums, teeth, and mouth. In other words, doctors perform these procedures for jaws repair, palate repair, facial injury repair and the repair of wisdom teeth.

8. Otolaryngology

Otolaryngology involves the procedures that treat the neck, head, nose, ears, and throat.

So, this was a brief introduction to different types of surgery based on body parts and timing. Hope this guide is helpful.


Better Health Through BALANCE!

Most of us have heard, the advice, Everything in moderation! Those, who seek, immediate, easy results, when it comes to living a happier, healthier life, are generally disappointed, because it requires a BALANCE of a variety of actions, including enhancing one’s attitude, lifestyle, personal habits, diet and exercise, etc, as well as using some common sense, in the quest. While this may seem obvious, since common sense, is often, one of the rarest behaviors, only those, with patience, and discipline, and a willingness, to open – one’s – mind, to consider, options, alternatives, and what’s best, for you, personally, generally proceed, accordingly. With that in mind, this article will attempt to, briefly, consider, examine, review, and discuss, using the mnemonic approach, what this means, and represents, and why it makes a difference.

1. Best; better; benefits: If you hope to experience the best possible health, and well – being, it’s essential to proceed, in a better way, than most do! Focus on the benefits of a variety of options and alternatives, rather than proceeding, with a narrow mind!

2. Attitude; attention: You can think you can, or think you can’t. Either way, you’ll be correct. Henry Ford, who was credited with saying these words, understood, the need, to proceed, with a true, positive, can – do, attitude, and paying attention, to what personal actions, are in your best, overall interest!

3. Listen; learn: Everyone makes mistakes, but the wise individual, consistently learns, from every conversation, and experience, gaining relevant expertise, and hopefully, better judgment, and wisdom! This means committing to effectively listening, far more than speaking, etc!

4. Aptitude; actions: When one develops and enhances his personal aptitude, and skill – set, and takes actions, in his own best interest, he will generally be happier, make wiser decisions, and, generally, healthier, too!

5. Needs: A healthier life demands, understanding your personal needs, priorities, goals, etc, and, differentiating, those, from unsubstantiated perceptions, opinions, and empty wishes!

6. Clever; character; creative: When someone is clever, enough, to proceed, with the quality of character, focused on a creative approach, to a happier, healthier life, much of the battle, is overcome, towards becoming the best, you can possibly be. Health, in the vast number of instances, depends on a meaningful balance of diet, exercise, happiness, self – discipline, and a desire to live a healthier life!

While all illnesses can’t be avoided, a commitment to BALANCE, often makes every – day living, happier and healthier. Will you have the discipline, to proceed, in your own best – interest?


A Simple Method to Cure Cold or the Flu

It is accepted that the common cold is caused by viruses such as the rhinovirus and can be transmitted from one infected individual to the other. The cold viruses are easily spread by one human coughing or sneezing in the air surrounding a healthy subject.

According to Wikipedia, Rhinovirus infection proliferates in temperatures between 33-35 degrees Celsius (91 to 95) the temperature found in the nose.

Dr Fiset after being exposed to a child suffering from a cold’s drect cough, developed symptoms of the common cold such as a sore throat.

She elaborated the premise that if she could lower the temperature in her mouth and nose by breathing by her open mouth, the virus might not develop. During the first day, she breath with her mouth slightly opened letting in cooler air (room temperature air is normally around 22 degrees Celsius) and did not develop a common cold the next day.

Dr Fiset added to her breathing technique drinking a lot of cold water and gargling with cold water. She based her behavior on the premise that it is accepted knowledge that a person starting a cold needs to hydrate herself. The gargling aimed at removing the virus from her throat.

Dr Fiset then filed a provisional patent for her breathing technique and recruited volunteers to practice her breathing methods the moment they felt a cold coming. She wanted to test if other people could get similar results, that is to say stop a common cold from developing by breathing through their mouth the minute they felt it in their throat.

To do her breathing technique, she opened her mouth creating a space of one quarter to one half of an inch between her upper and lower lips (when she was in public not to stand out). She breathe through her mouth widely opened when alone. Her breathing rate was not modified. She did this breathing technique many times during the first day she felt the cold in her throat.

According to Webmd, between lost work and doctor visits, and cold medicine, the common cold costs the U.S. economy about $40 billion a year.

Further research with double blind controlled studies need to be done. Dr Fiset also questions if by having a shorter encounter with the rhinovirus a person might not develop as much antibodies as if she had developed the full course of the common cold.

The power of using Dr Fiset’s breathing method to stop a cold from developing is that it is natural and theoretically can succeed against any virus causing the common cold, contrary to potent retroviruses that also carry important side effects.

Antiviral drugs cost a lot of money and can cause resistant viruses. Furthermore, some cold viruses would not be affected by antiviral drugs.

Dr Fiset’s breathing technique is free. It also changes the environment in a natural way making it unsuitable for common cold viruses to develop fully.

There will always be viruses that give common cold. By developing her breathing technique, Dr Fiset is merely suggesting that an acute cold can be stopped, diminished or alleviated naturally.

Dr Fiset voices her concern that if her breathing method to stop the cold from developing spreads, a new generation of viruses that give a cold might develop, one that can thrive at lower temperature.


Medical Coding Statistics and How It Helps in Public Health Improvement

Medical coding is like translation. People behind medical coding take medical reports and convert them into a set of codes. In a medical claim, these codes play a great role. In this article, we are going to take a look at medical coding and the relevant statistics. Read on to know more.

The Reason to Code Medical Reports

You may be wondering why we need to code medical reports. Isn’t it enough to just describe the diagnoses, symptoms, and procedures? After all, these reports can be sent to an insurance company.

According to the reports released by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), over the past 12 months, there were more than 1.4 billion patients who visited hospitals. This includes patients who visit emergency rooms, outpatient facilities, and physician offices.

Suppose there are only 5 pieces of coded info against each visit. It would be a whopping 6 billion pieces of info that the professional would need to transfer each year. This estimate is unrealistically low, though. So, medical coding helps make it easier to transfer a lot of data.

Aside from this, coding helps you distribute the same documents between different medical facilities. For instance, the code of strep throat is the same whether you are in Hawaii or Arkansas. With the help of uniform data, you can perform research and analysis in an efficient manner. Health and government agencies make use of the info in order to keep an eye on health trends. For instance, if the CDC needs to analyze the spread of viral pneumonia, the ICD-10-CM code can help them.

Lastly, coding helps you find out if a treatment is effective. As a matter of fact, this is a lot more important for large facilities, such as hospitals.

Now, we should go ahead and find out more about 3 types of code. If you are a medical coder, you will find this information pretty useful.

Three Types of Code

ICD

ICD is short for the International Classification of Diseases. These diagnostic codes provide a uniform vocabulary to describe the possible causes of death, illness or injury. In the 1940s, the World Health Organization (WHO) established this code. Over the past 60 years, it’s has been revised many times.

These codes help represent the diagnosis and the condition of the patient. As far as the billing process goes, these codes help professionals determine the necessity of medical treatment.

CPT

CPT is short for Current Procedure Terminology. These codes are used in order to document most of the medical procedures at a doctor’s office. The American Medical Association (AMA) published and maintained this code. So, AMA reserves the copyrights and updates the codes on a yearly basis.

HCPCS

HCPCS refers to the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System. It’s also known as “hick picks”. Primarily, HCPCS codes correspond to equipment, procedures, and services that CPT codes don’t cover, which includes medicines, drugs, ambulance rides, prosthetics, and medical equipment.


Probiotics for Healthy Mouth Cavity

Probiotics have got beneficial effects on the health of humans. This is because they have an action mechanism that is related to the capability to compete for adhesion sites with microorganisms that are pathogenic. It is this potential that probiotics have that has attracted many people’s attention. So far, some clinical studies have already been conducted. According to the results, there is a suggestion that the probiotics are indeed very useful in the prevention and the treatment of different oral infections. This includes halitosis, periodontal disease, and dental caries.

Human beings ingest many microorganisms that are living. The most predominant ones are bacteria. The organisms are present in the food and water that we take. However, they can also be added in food over the processing period. They can be added to fermented milk, yogurt, cheese, and even sausages.

For quite some time now, probiotic bacteria’s have been used in foods because of the benefits they possess and their effect on health. The bacteria found in yoghurt as well as milk products that are fermented constitute a very valuable probiotic source. Most of the probiotics show great effectiveness, especially in the treatment of infections and systematic diseases. These include Crohn disease and acute diarrhea.

There are yet other studies that have suggested that there is a potential application in handling cancers, oropharyngeal infections, urogenital infections, and cardiovascular diseases. Some probiotics are also very useful in dealing with issues that arise due to the overuse of antibiotics especially when there is bacterial resistance.

Characteristics

Probiotics are living microorganisms. Principally, they are bacteria which are quite safe for consumption, especially when sufficient quantities are ingested. They have quite beneficial effects on health.

There are guidelines and standards that are laid out in different jurisdictions regarding probiotics and whether they are accepted as legitimate products that are health related. To serve as a probiotic, the bacterial strain needs to be characterized in full. It is necessary to identify the genus as well as the species of such a microorganism and this should be within the international standards.

Studies need to be conducted so that the mechanism on how the bacteria works as a probiotic can be established. This makes it possible to predict the scope of where it can be applied and the potential ill effects it can have on human health.

How they work

There are different mechanisms that can be used to illustrate how the probiotics actually act. The bacteria actually excrete different substances that are antimicrobial like bacteriocins, hydrogen peroxide, and organic acids. These bacteria’s also compete with different pathogens for sites, which are used for adhesion. Probiotics are also able to make modifications to the environment around them by oxidation and pH modulation. It is these changes that compromise how well pathogens are established. The probiotics can also stimulate modulating and immunity of the cellular and humoral immune response.


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